Infectious mononucleosis also known as kissing disease is a viral disease caused by Ebstein-Barr Virus. Mononucleosis can also be caused due to infection with Cytomegalo Virus and is usually seen between in 15-17 age groups.
The infectious organism of mononucleosis usually spreads by saliva but in rare cases spread via blood transfusion has also been observed. Majormononucleosis symptoms include severe fatigue, swollen lymph glands, head ache, muscle aches, sore throat, high fever, skin rash and respiratory tract infections.
Less common infectious mononucleosis symptoms include chest pain, hives, neck stiffness, nose bleed, sensitivity to light, rapid heart rate and shortness of breath. Rarely, children suffering from Ebstein-Barr Virus infection develop meningitis (inflammation of covering layer of brain), encephalitis (inflammation of brain tissue) and Guillian-Barre Syndrome (paralyzing disorder).
Mononucleosis symptoms cause great discomfort and stress; however, all these mononucleosis symptoms are the signals that the human body is working to get rid of the infectious organism. Some of the common mononucleosis symptoms are detailed below:
Sore throat is one of the most common mononucleosis symptoms. Throat becomes red and sore due to the dilatation of blood vessels in the throat region. This increase in blood flow allows more white blood cells to pass to the tissues along with immune proteins.
The usual mononucleosis symptoms in children are swollen and inflamed glands. Even in some adults, these symptoms remain present during the period of infection. Mostly swollen glands are present in the neck; however, in some cases, swollen glands may be in armpits as well as groin region. Lymph nodes are responsible for removal of antigens i.e. virus or bacteria from the body by producing antibodies.
Fever is one of the Mononucleosis symptoms in teenagers as well as in adults. Fever and flu cause weakness and fatigue among the patients. Mononucleosis sufferer gets lethargic and tired.
Other mononucleosis symptoms
Other Mononucleosis symptoms that are present in sufferers are respiratory infections i.e. cough, sneezing and nasal discharge. As soon as the body gets infected with mononucleosis infection, it starts developing histamine that sends the immune cells to cover the infected area having pain and swollen. Moreover, the production of excess mucus eliminates the dead microbes out of the nose.
This mucus further causes sneezing and cough to expel the dead organisms from the body. Mononucleosis symptoms all are the indicators that the body is fighting against the infectious mononucleosis disease. In case of self-prescribed medication, there are chances that mononucleosis symptoms get worse resulting in sinus infection or pneumonia.
Initial diagnosis of mononucleosis is made on the basis of swollen tonsils, enlarged lymph nodes, enlarged liver, soft and enlarged spleen and skin rash. However, final diagnosis is made on the basis of elevated white blood cell count, positive monospot test for mononucleosis and raised anti-body titer against infection.
Treatment option is based on the severity of the disease. Complications of mononucleosis include hepatitis, hemolytic anemia, inflammation of the testes and splenic rupture. Severe infection in people having weakened immune system may lead to death.